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PostPosted: Fri Aug 21, 2009 3:59 pm 
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Vol. IX Pages 2262 to 2268

and

Processos Volume XI
Pages 2813 to 2835





Martin Grime
UK NPIA Registered Subject Matter Expert
FBI Forensic Canine Program Specialist Adviser


OPERATION TASK


Personal profile



I am an U.K.A.C.P.O. accredited police dog training instructor in post at the Operational Support Services. I am a Subject Matter Expert registered with N.C.P.E. and specialist homicide canine search advisor. In support of the national Homicide Search Advisor, Mark Harrison, I advise Domestic and International Law enforcement agencies on the operational deployment of Police Dogs in the role of Homicide investigation. I develop methods of detecting forensically recoverable evidence by the use of dogs and facilitate training.

I am a Special Advisor to The U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, in relation to their Canine Forensic Program.

I am regularly deployed to assist in high profile homicide cases within my portfolio and form a 'Specialist Canine Homicide Search Team' including the S.A.M dog teams from Dyfed Powys.

My core role includes the training and operational handling of specialist search dogs in the fields of Human Victim Recovery and Forensic Crime Scene Investigation.

I have trained and handle two operational specialist search dogs. 'Eddie' is a 7-year old English Springer spaniel dog. 'Keela' is a three-year old English Springer spaniel pregnant dog. I also have a six-month old English Springer spaniel dog, puppy, in training, 'Morse' .



Search Asset Profile

'Eddie' The Enhanced Victim Recovery Dog (E.V.RD.) will search for and locate human remains and body fluids including blood to very small samples in any environment or terrain. The initial training of the asset is conducted using pig as the subject matter for solid hides and human blood for fluid. The use of human remains for the purpose of training dogs in the U.K. is not acceptable at this point in time.

The dog has however considerable experience in operational recovery of human remains and evidential forensic material and has trained exclusively using human remains in the U.S.A. in association with the F.B.I. The enhanced training of the dog involves the use of collection of 'Dead body scent' odour from corpses using remote technical equipment which does not contact.

The E.V.R.D. will locate cadaver, whether in the whole or parts thereof; deposited surface or sub-surface to a depth of approximately 3-4 feet shortly after death to the advanced stages of deposition and putrefaction through to skeletal. This includes incinerated remains even if large quantities of accelerant have been involved.

The dog will locate human cadaver in water either from the bank side or when deployed in a boat where a large area may be covered using a gridding system.

The dog has also been trained to identify 'dead body' scent contamination where there is no physically retrievable evidence, due to scent adhering to pervious material such as carpet or the upholstery in motor vehicles. Whereas there may be no retrievable evidence for court purposes this may well assist intelligence gathering in Major Crime investigations. This may be completed by the dog being deployed directly to the subject area or by scent samples being taken on sterile gauze pads and the scent check being completed by scent discrimination exercise at a suitable venue.

The dog will alert to the presence of 'dead body' scent whether it is at source or some distance away from a deposition site. This enables the use of the dog to identify the exhaust of the scent through fissures in bedrock or watercourses. A geophysical survey of the area will then reduce the size of the search area.

The dog may be used to screen clothing, vehicles or property in a suitable environment. This is completed in a scent discrimination exercise where controls may be included to increase assurity.

I have developed the training of the E.V.R.D. to include the screening of scent pads taken from motor vehicles, property or scenes by a ST100 Scent Transference Unit. The unit is designed in a two-part design. The main body is a battery operated electrical device that draws air in at to the front and exhausts through the rear. There is no 're-circulation' of air within the unit. The second part is a 'grilled' hood that fits to the main body. A sterile gauze pad is fitted into the hood. When operated, the ST100 draws air through the hood and the sterile gauze pad and exhausts through
ports to the rear. 'Scent' is trapped in the gauze, which may then be forensically stored for use within scent discrimination exercises.

The ST 100 unit is cleaned following use in such a manner that no residual scent is apparent. This is checked by control measures where the dog is allowed to search a given area where the S 100 is secreted. Any response by the dog would suggest contamination. Tests have shown that the decontamination procedures are effective in this case with the dog NOT alerting to the device when completed.

Use of the ST 100 is recommended when subject vehicles, property, clothing, premises are to be forensically protected from contamination by the dog, and for covert deployment. At all other times best practice would be for the dog to be given direct access.

Operational use of the ST100 is in a developmental stage.

'Keela' The Crime Scene Investigation (C.S.I.) dog will search for and locate human blood to such small proportions that it is unlikely to be recovered by the forensic science procedures in place at this time due to its size or placement.

She will locate contaminated weapons, screen motor vehicles and items of clothing and examine crime scenes for minute human blood deposits. She will accurately locate human blood on items that have been subjected to 'clean up operations' or having been subjected to several washing machine cycles.

In training she has accurately located minute samples of blood on property up to thiry-six years old.

In order for the dog to locate the source the blood must have 'dried' in situ. Any 'wetting' once dried will not affect the dog's abilities.

Blood that is subjected to dilution by precipitation or other substantial water source prior to drying will soak into the ground or other absorbent material. This may dilute the scent to an unacceptable level for accurate location.

It is possible however that the EVRD will locate the scent source as it would for 'dead body' scent. Forensic testing may not produce evidence but any alert may provide intelligence to support other factors in the investigation of a crime.

The assets may be deployed upon request of a Senior Investigating Oficer (S.I.O.) following consultation with the appropriate S.M.E.'s and advisors.

The project team makes decisions on suitability for case deployment. Due to the very nature of the dog's presence, cross contamination and preservation of vital evidence at crime scenes must be considered prior to any deployment in consultation with the senior crime scene coordinator.

Both dogs and I are licensed as two separate working teams. We are independently tested and licensed mutually, normally at six monthly intervals as a 'rolling' programme to ensure best practice is maintained. They are tested to units of assessment prepared as a stand-alone system as these dogs are the only assets of their type in the world. Training records are maintained and are available if required.

POINTS TO ASSIST

Whilst it is stated that the E.V.RD. is originally trained using pig the following notes of guidance should be considered when assessing indications:

P In six years operational deployment in over 200 cases the dog has never alerted to meat based foodstuffs.

> The dog has never alerted to 'road kill'

P Alerts given by the dog where no obvious human remains are found are supported by forensic evidence / anecdotal witness accounts.

> The dog, a scavenger, uses its olfactory system to locate food sources, identify its young and other pack members, enemies and predators over large distances. It can track its prey identifying a direction of travel. This entails the dog being able to discriminate the time difference between footsteps using the sense of smell !

> The dog is an animal that's basic function in the wild is to scavenge food and procreate.

> In a domestic environment it responds to humans as a food source and bonds in the manner it would with other pack members.

> The reward of food and protection / close comfort provides the basis for a system to be adopted where the dog shows a willingness to respond in response to the reward. We are thereby able to 'train' the dog using conditioned responses to stimuli. Repetition and reward then ensure efficiency. Positive and negative reinforcement then shape the required behaviour in their role.

P Pavlov's theory is used in the case of the E.V.RD. system of alert. He has been 'conditioned' to give a verbal alert when coming into contact with 'dead body scent'. The presence of tangible material is not required to produce the response.

> Although the dog is 'trained' using reward based methods the behaviour shaping and enforcement regime produces an asset that does not false alert unlike electronic devices.

> Pseudo scent is a chemically produced product that its manufacturers claim to resemble 'dead body scent'. Although some trainers have had limited success when tested on my dogs they showed no interest.

> Operational finds backed by forensic corroboration have shown that the system adopted by me in the training of the dogs is both effective and efficient.

Acting in my role of advisor to the U.S. Justice Department I have facilitated assessment of numerous cadaver search dog teams in the United States. These dogs are exclusively trained using human cadaver sources. When I introduced pig based products into training assessments 100% of the animals alerted to the medium.

> The result from scientific experiment and research to date would tend to support the theory that the scent of human and pig decomposing material is so similar that we are unable to 'train' the dog to distinguish between the two.

That is not to say that this may not be possible in the future.

> The odour target of cadaver is scientifically explained through 'volatile compounds" that in a certain configuration are received by the dog as a receptor. Recognition then gives a conditioned response 'ALERT'. Despite considerable research and analytical investigation the compounds cannot be replicated in laboratory processes. Therefore the 'alert' by dogs without a tangible source cannot be forensically proven at this time.

> 'Dead body scent' cannot be removed by cleaning. The compounds adhere to surfaces. The scent can be 'masked' by bleach and other strong smelling odours but the dog's olfactory system is able to separate odour and identify specific compounds' and mixes to cellular level. A similar system would be a device similar to an electron microscope.

> In training the dog has accurately alerted to a 1 cm cube of pork soaked in petrol for 1 week and then burnt until only a residue remains.

>The dog's olfactory system is so highly developed that it continues to be efficient at cellular level:

Distinguish the time difference between footprints to give a direction of travel.

Distinguish live from dead within minutes.

Distinguish human blood from other species where the chemical constituent parts are identical.

Identify the EXACT location of blood so small in size that when forensically recovered will NOT provide a full DNA strand despite low copy DNA analysis.

> Scientists accept that there is no forensic testing equipment as discriminatory as the dogs olfactory system at this present moment in time.

>All research and training of the dogs within this program is completed in conjunction with a team of scientists for differing fields of expertise. They have in the past and will continue to endorse the dogs used within the field of homicide investigations.


Last edited by Ines on Tue Mar 13, 2012 3:43 am, edited 2 times in total.
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PostPosted: Fri Aug 21, 2009 4:00 pm 
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Page 2267

APPENDIX.... (To Martin Grime's Profile Report)

ATTRACTA HARRON.

A missing person, last seen returning from church, on foot, in N. Ireland.
A missing person search did not reveal her whereabouts.
The search of a suspect's 'totally burnt out vehicle' by forensic scientists did not reveal any evidence.
A 'one minute' search by the EVRD identified a position in the rear passenger footwell where the dog alerted to the presence of human material.
A sample was taken and when analysed revealed the victim's DNA.
The enquiry then concentrated it's efforts on the suspect and the EVRD located the body of the woman in a river bank deposition site.
Further searches identified a location where the EVRD alerted in the front bedroom of the offender's empty next door dwelling house.
When interviewed the suspect admitted that the body had laid in the room for 1 hour prior to disposal. Forensic teams were unable to extract any forensic evidence despite being shown the exact position.

AMANDA EDWARDS

A missing person abducted by her ex-boyfriend.
Intelligence suggested that her ex-boyfriend had taken her to his house.
A search of the house resulted in small blood stains being recovered.
A search of nearby waste land identified a mattress. Checks revealed it came from the house.
The suspect, a builder, was in possession of a van. This was searched and the dog alerted to a 'wacker plate', spirtit level, and shovel.
A site was identified where the suspect had been working. The EVRD then located
the body deposition site in an area of a garage base that had been prepared by the suspect. He had retumed with the dead girl, dug a grave in the centre, placed the body in the hole, replaced the spoil and then used the shovel, wacker plate and spirit level to return the ground to its original state.
Forensic scientists were unable to coníirm using chemical analysis.


Page 2268

CHARLOTTE PINKNEY

Charlotte Pinkney was abducted by an ex-boyfriend and has never been seen since.
An initial search by the EVRD revealed a 'classic' secondary deposition site near to a sighting of the suspect in suspicious circumstances.
The investigative team distrusted the dogs opinion until a full forensic search revealed a small button off of the girls clothing in long grass.
This evidence was put to the suspect who fully admitted the offence.

There are many instances such as this.

The most poignant being :
When 'Keela' was nine months old she was tasked to search an open fishing boat, contaminated by rotting fish flesh and BLOOD.
A missing person was believed to have kilied on the boat.
The dog located and alerted to a blood sample that was so small that when LOW
COPY analysed was reported as being PRIMATE and an uncompleted sample.
There are only two scenarios to suit this find. The blood was either human or a gorilla went out in a boat fishing ! !

Should you require further examples or comments, please do not hesitate to contact me.


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PostPosted: Fri Aug 21, 2009 4:00 pm 
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Volume IX pages 2473 - 2477

August 2007


Martin Grime
UK NPIA Registered Subject Matter Expert
FBI Forensic Canine Program Specialist Adviser


OPERATION TASK CANINE SEARCH REPORT

Personal Profile


I am a 'retired' police officer, formally a senior instructor at the South Yorkshire Police dog training establishment.

I have 35 years experience in the training of dogs both within the police service and in the public sector.

I specialise in the development and training of specialist search dogs to include narcotics, explosives, currency, human remains, blood and semen.

I am the Special Advisor to The U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, in relation to their Canine Forensic Program.

I am a U.K.A.C.P.O. (Association of Chief Police Officers, England and Wales) accredited police dog training instructor. I am a Subject Matter Expert in forensic canine search and on the N.P.I.A. (National Policing Improvement Agency) Expert Advisers database.

I advise Domestic and International Law enforcement agencies on the operational deployment of Police Dogs in the role of Homicide investigation.

I develop methods of detecting forensically recoverable evidence by the use of dogs and facilitate training.

I am regularly deployed to homicide cases within my portfolio and form a 'Specialist Canine Homicide Search Team' including the S.A.M dog teams from Dyfed Powys and USA.

I have trained and handle two operational specialist search dogs: 'Eddie' is a 7-year-old English Springer spaniel dog who is trained as an Enhanced Victim Recovery Dog (EVRD).

'Keela' is a three-year old English Springer spaniel pregnant dog who is trained as an
Human blood search dog (C.S.I. dog).

OPERATION TASK CANINE DEPLOYMENTS 1-8 AUGUST 2007

On the instruction of The PJ Director, The Portuguese police kept all search records concerning the deployment of the search dogs. All dog searches were recorded by video.

The following searches were conducted:


Five apartments at a complex in Praia Da Luz.
Mr. Murat's property at Praia Da Luz.
Mr. McCann's Villa at Praia Da Luz ( Present occupancy).
Articles of clothing from Mr. McCann's residence.
Western beach Praia da Luz.
Eastern Beach Praia Da Luz.
10 Vehicles screened at Portimao.


CANINE SEARCHES AT FIVE APARTMENTS AT PRAIA DA LUZ.

All five apartments were searched using the EVRD. The only alert indications were at apartment 5a, the reported scene.

The EVRD alerted in the:
Rear bedroom of the apartment in the immediate right hand corner by
the door.

Living room, behind sofa.

Veranda outside parent's bedroom.

Garden area directly under veranda.

My observation of the dog's behaviour in this instance was that the dog's behaviour changed immediately upon opening the front door to the apartment. He will normally remain in the sit position until released and tasked to search.
On this occasion he broke the stay and entered the apartment with an above average interest. His behaviour was such that I believed him to be 'in scent' and I therefore allowed him to free search without direction to allow him to identify the source of his interest. He did so alerting in the rear bedroom.

I released him from this and tasked him to continue to search. He did so alerting in an area to the rear of the sofa in the lounge.

The dog's behaviour for these alerts led me to the following opinions:

The first alert was given with the dogs head in the air without a positive area being identified. This is the alert given by him when there is no tangible evidence to be located only the remaining scent.

The second alert was one where a definitive area was evident. The CSI dog was therefore deployed who gave specific alert indications to specific areas on the tiled floor area behind the sofa and on the curtain in the area that was in contact with the floor behind the sofa. This would indicate to the likely presence of human blood.

The forensic science support officers were then deployed to recover items for laboratory analysis.

There were no alert indications from the remaining properties. I did however see the dog search in the kitchen waste bins. These contained meat foodstuffs including pork and did not result in any false alert response.

CANINE SEARCH OF MR MURAT'S PROPERTY.

The property was subjected to a search for human remains or blood stained articles. The outside of property was stripped of vegetation and after the ground being probed was searched by the EVRD dog. The inside of the property was then searched by the dog. There were no alert indications and no human remains were located.

CANINE SEARCH OF MR McCANN'S VILLA, PRESENT OCCUPANCY.

The villa interior, garden, and all property within were searched by the EVRD. The only alert indication given was when the dog located a pink cuddly toy in the villas lounge. The CSI dog did not alert to the toy when screened separately.

It is my view that it is possible that the EVRD is alerting to cadaver scent contamination. No evidential or intelligence reliability can be made from this alert unless it can be confirmed with corroborating evidence.

BOXES OF CLOTHING 1 PROPERTY FORM MR McCANN'S RESIDENCE.

At a suitable venue numerous boxes of clothing 1 property taken from the McCann present residence were screened using both the EVRD and the CSI dog. The venue was screened by both dogs prior to introducing clothing / property. Neither gave an alert indication. The screening then took place with the contents of each box being placed around the room in turn. The process
was recorded by video and written records were taken by PJ officers.

The only alert indication was by the EVRD on clothing from one of the boxes. I am not in possession of the details as these were recorded by the PJ officers present.

It is my view that it is possible that the EVRD is alerting to 'a cadaver scent' contaminant. No evidential or intelligence reliability can be made from this alert unless it can be confirmed with corroborating evidence.

WESTERN BEACH

The beach above the waterline was searched. This extended to areas of fallen rock and the cliff face as far as the dog could negotiate the incline. There were no alert indications.

EASTERN BEACH

The beach above the waterline was searched. This extended to areas of fallen rock and the cliff face as far as the dog could negotiate the incline. There were no alert indications.

CANINE VEHICLE SEARCHES.

Ten vehicles were screened in an underground multi storey car park at Portimao. The vehicles, of which I did not know the owner details, were parked on an empty floor with 20-30 feet between each. The vehicle placement video recording and management of the process was conducted
by the PJ. The EVRD was then tasked to search the area. When passing a vehicle I now know to be hired and in the possession of the McCann family, the dog's behaviour changed substantially. This then produced an alert indication at the lower part of the drivers door where the dog was biting and barking. I recognise this behaviour as the dog indicating scent emitting from
the inside of the vehicle through the seal around the door.

This vehicle was then subjected to a full physical examination by the PJ and no human remains were found. The CSI dog was then tasked to screen the vehicle. An alert indication was forthcoming from the rear driver's side of the boot area. Forensic samples were taken by the PJ and forwarded to a forensic laboratory in the U.K.

It is my view that it is possible that the EVRD is alerting to 'cadaver scent' contaminant or human blood scent. No evidential or intelligence reliability can be made from this alert unless it can be confirmed with corroborating evidence. The remainder of the vehicles were screened by the EVRD without any interest being shown. Therefore the CSI dog was not further deployed.


SUMMARY

The tasking for this operation was as per my normal Standard Operating Procedures. The dogs are deployed as search assets to secure evidence and locate human remains or Human blood.

The dogs only alerted to property associated with the McCann family. The dog alert indications MUST be corroborated if to establish their findings as evidence.

Therefore in this particular case, as no human remains were located, the only alert indications that may become corroborated are those that the CSI dog indicated by forensic laboratory analysis.

My professional opinion as regards to the EVRD's alert indications is that it is suggestive that this is 'cadaver scent' contaminant. This does not however suggest a motive or suspect as cross contamination could be as a result of a number of given scenarios and in any event no evidential or intelligence reliability can be made from these alerts unless they can be confirmed with
corroborating evidence.


Last edited by Ines on Tue Nov 22, 2011 9:17 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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PostPosted: Fri Aug 21, 2009 4:00 pm 
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Vol IX p. 2478



CADAVER AND HUMAN BLOOD DETECTING DOGS SEARCH ASSET PROFILES


LICENSING AND ACCREDITATION


U.K., A.C.P.O. licensed and accredited cadaver dogs are trained and licensed on the basis of the relevant section of the Police Dog Training and Care manual. This involves the training of G.P. (General Purpose) dogs to alert to the presence of surface deposition and sub-surface deposition to approximately 2 feet. The dogs are deployed on long lines to search an area in large numbers.

The U.K. has also approximately six Police dog teams that have been trained exclusively on decomposing pig remains not for human consumption as specialist dogs to work off the leash to locate human remains in a wider variety of scenarios. Pig is used as it has been proven in training and operationally over the last 20 years to be a reliable analogue for human remains detecting training for dogs. The possession of human remains for the purpose of training dogs in the U.K. is not acceptable at this point in time.

Licensing is derived from anecdotal cases and is scenario based conducted over a period of a week, twice annually, it is conducted utilising independent A.C.P.O. authorised assessors. Continuation training is conducted on a daily basis and includes simple scent discrimination testing to large scale scenario based exercises.

Both dogs and I are licensed as two separate working teams. We are independently tested and licensed annually, normally at six monthly intervals as a 'rolling' programme to ensure best practice is maintained. They are tested to units of assessment prepared as a stand-alone system as these dogs are unique. Training records are maintained and are available if required.

All operational deployments are video recorded including a control sample find when appropriate.

Vol IX p. 2479

TRAINING

The dog, a scavenger, uses its olfactory system to locate food sources, identify its young, other pack members, enemies and predators over large distances. It can track its prey identifying a direction of travel. This entails the dog being able to discriminate the time difference between footsteps using the sense of smell. The reward of food and protection / close comfort provides the basis for a system to be adopted where the dog shows a willingness to respond in response to the reward. We are thereby able to 'train' the dog using conditioned responses to stimuli. Repetition and reward then ensure efficiency. Positive and negative reinforcement then shape the required behaviour in their role. Within the role of these dogs they are utilising basis survival instinct but have undergone behaviour shaping to alert the handler to their finding as opposed to consummation. Pavlov's theory is used in the case of the E.V.R.D. system of alert. He has been 'conditioned' to give a verbal alert when coming into contact with 'dead body scent'. The presence of tangible material is not required to produce the response merely the scent itself. Pseudo scent is an artificially chemically produced product that its
manufacturers claim to resemble 'dead body scent'. Although some cadaver dog trainers have had limited success with its use in training, when tested on my dogs they showed no interest and it is not used as a training aid for them.


In my role as advisor to the U.S. Justice Department I have facilitated assessment of numerous cadaver search dog teams in the United States. These dogs are exclusively trained using human cadaver sources. When I introduced decomposing pig cadavers into training assessments 100 % of the animals alerted to the medium. (The products were obtained from whole piglet cadaver not processed food for human consumption). The result from scientific experiments and research to date is suggestive that the scent of
human and pig decomposing material is so similar that we are unable to 'train' the dog to distinguish between the two. That is not to say that this may not be possible in the future.

CADAVER SCENT

The odour target of cadaver is scientifically explained through 'volatile organic compounds' that in a certain configuration are received by the dog as a receptor. Recognition then gives a conditioned response 'ALERT'. Despite considerable research and analytical investigation the compounds cannot as yet be replicated in laboratory processes. Therefore the 'alert' by dogs without a tangible source cannot be forensically proven at this time. Cadaver scent cannot readily be removed by cleaning as the compounds adhere to surfaces.

The scent can be 'masked' by bleach and other strong smelling odours but the dog's olfactory system is able to isolate the odours and identify specific compounds' and mixes. Cadaver scent contamination may be transferred in numerous scenarios. Any contact with a cadaver which is then passed to any other material may be recognised by the dog causing a 'trigger' indication.


Last edited by Ines on Tue Nov 22, 2011 11:24 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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PostPosted: Fri Aug 21, 2009 4:01 pm 
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Vol. IX p. 2480


EVRD

'Eddie' The Enhanced Victim Recovery Dog (E.V.R.D.) will search for and locate human remains and body fluids including blood in any environment or terrain. The initial training of the dog was conducted using human blood and still born decomposing piglets. The importance of this is that the dog is introduced to the scent of a decomposing body NOT FOODSTUFF. This ensures that the dog disregards the 'bacon sandwich' and 'kebab' etc that is ever present in the background environment. Therefore the dog would remain efficient searching for a cadaver in a café where the clientele were sat eating bacon sandwiches. He has additionally trained exclusively using human remains in the U.S.A. in association with the F.B.I. The enhanced training of the dog has also involved the use of collection of 'cadaver scent' odour from human corpses using remote technical equipment which does not contact the subject. This method is comparable to the simulation of cross contamination. It does however differ in that the remote scent samples recovery does not involve subject matter and therefore is a 'pure' scent sample. The dog has since initial training gained considerable experience in
successfully operationally locating human remains and evidential forensic material.

The E.R.V.D. has successfully in training and in operational casework located human cadavers, whether in the whole or parts thereof, deposited surface or sub-surface to a depth of approximately 1 metre shortly after death (though precise times are not determinable) to the advanced stages of decomposition and putrefaction through the skeletal. This includes incinerated remains even if large quantities of accelerant have been involved. The dog has successfully in training and in operational casework located a human cadavers in water either from the bank side or when deployed in a boat.

The dog has also been trained to identify cadaver scent contamination where there is no physically retrievable evidence, due to scent adhering to pervious material such as carpet or the upholstery in motor vehicles. This may be achieved by the dog being deployed directly to the subject area or by scent samples being taken by remote means on sterile gauze pads. The gauze pads are then 'screened' in a line - up formation with the inclusion of a number of control samples and blank sterile pads.

The dog will alert to the presence of cadaver scent whether it is at source or some distance away from a deposition site. This enables the use of the dog to identify the venting or exhaust channels of the scent through fissures in bedrock or watercourses. A geophysical survey of the area will then reduce the size of the search area.

The dog may be used to screen clothing, vehicles or property in a suitable environment. This is completed in a scent discrimination exercise where controls may be included to increase assurity.


FALSE ALERTS

'False' positives are always a possibility; to date Eddie has not so indicated operationally or in training. In six years of operational deployment in over 200 criminal case searches the dog has never alerted to meat based and specifically pork foodstuffs designed for human consumption. Similarly the dog has never alerted to 'road kill', that is any other dead animal. My experience as a trainer is that false alerts are normally caused by handler cueing. All indications by the dog are preceded by a change in behaviour.
This increased handler confidence in the response. This procedure also stops handlers 'cueing' and indication. The dogs are allowed to 'free search' and investigate areas of interest. The handler does not influence their behaviour other than to direct the search.

STU MACHINE

I have developed the training of the E.V.R.D. to include the screening of scent pads taken from motor vehicles, property or scenes by a Scent Transference Unit. Operational use of the STU is in a developmental and evaluative stage used in conjunction with selective FBI casework. The unit is in a two-part design. The main body is a battery operated electrical device that draws air in at to the front and exhausts through the rear. There is no 're-circulation' of air within the unit. The second part is a 'grilled' hood that fits to the main body. A sterile gauze pad is fitted into the hood. When operated, the STU draws air through the hood and the sterile gauze pad and exhausts through ports to the rear. 'Scent' is trapped in the gauze, which may then be forensically stored for use within scent discrimination exercises.

The STU is cleaned following use in such a manner that no residual scent is apparent. This is checked by control measures where the dog is allowed to search a given area where the STU is secreted. Any response by the dog would suggest contamination. Tests have shown that the decontamination procedures are effective in this case with the dog NOT alerting to the device when completed. Use of the STU is considered when subject vehicles, property, clothing, premises are to be forensically protected from
contamination by the dog, and for covert deployment. At all other times best practice would be for the dog to be given direct access.

EVRD OPERATIONAL CASEWORK EXAMPLES

Northern Ireland, UK
A missing person, last seen returning from church, on foot, in N. Ireland. The search of suspects 'burnt out vehicle' by forensic scientists did not reveal any evidence. A search by the E.V.R.D. identified a position in the rear passenger foot well where the dog alerted to the presence of human material. A sample was taken and when analysed revealed the victims' DNA. The enquiry then concentrated its efforts on the suspect and the E.V.R.D. located the body of the woman in a river bank deposition site. Further searches identified a location where the E.V.R.D. alerted in the front bedroom of the offenders empty next door dwelling house. When interviewed the suspect admitted that the body had lain in the room for 1 hour prior to disposal. Forensic teams were unable to extract any forensic evidence despite being shown the exact position.

Wiltshire, UK
A female was abducted by her ex-boyfriend. Intelligence suggested that her ex-boy friend had taken her to his house. A search by the EVRD of the house resulted in small blood stains being alert indicated and forensically confirmed as her blood. The suspect, a builder, was in possession of a van. This was searched and the EVRD dog alerted to a 'wacker plate', spirit level, and shovel. A site was identified where the suspect had been working. The EVRD then located the body deposition site in an area of a garbage base that had been prepared by the suspect. He had returned with the dead girl, dug a
grave in the centre, placed the body in the hole, replaced the spoil and then used the shovel, wacker plate and spirit level to return the ground to its original state.

Devon, UK
A female was abducted and her whereabouts were unknown. The suspect was a bus driver. An initial search by the E.V.R.D. alerted at a location near to a sighting of the suspect in suspicious circumstances. A forensic search at the alert location revealed a small button off of the girls clothing in long grass. The offender confessed to the murder and confirmed her body had been initially temporarily placed at the dog's alert location.

Cornwall, UK
A woman was reported missing by her partner. A search of the suspects house by the EVRD was conducted who indicated on the living room carpet. No forensic evidence was recovered. Subsequently a diary written by the suspect was alert indicated by the dog. The diary had written extracts that the offender had laid the victim on the carpet whilst dead, the diary had in fact been written by the suspect having handled the body. This was confirmed by the offender in interview.

New Mexico, U.S.A.
A witness reported having seen two men walk off into brush land carrying a spade and a corpse. The area was searched with the EVRD with no indications being forthcoming. Other assets were utilised and the body was found: buried at a depth of 8 feet, under the water table, 3 feet of cement and 5 feet of earth replaced on top the corpse that was wrapped in cling film. There being no scent available to the dog to receive there was no forthcoming alert.


Last edited by Ines on Tue Nov 22, 2011 11:30 pm, edited 1 time in total.
Edited to correct typos


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PostPosted: Fri Aug 21, 2009 4:01 pm 
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Vol IX p. 2483

CSI HUMAN BLOOD DETECTING DOG

'Keela' The Crime Scene Investigation (C.S.I.) dog will search for and locate exclusively human blood. She will locate contaminated weapons, screen motor vehicles and items of clothing and examine crime scenes for human blood deposits. She will accurately locate human blood on items that have been subjected to 'clean up operations' or having been subjected to several washing machine cycles. In training she has accurately located samples of blood on property up to thirty-six years old.

In order for the dog to locate the source the blood must have 'dried' in situ. Any 'wetting' once dried will not affect the dog's abilities. Blood that is subjected to dilution by precipitation or other substantial water source prior to drying will soak into the ground or other absorbent material. This may dilute the scent to an unacceptable level for accurate location.

She is trained specifically using human blood obtained through the haematology department at Sheffield Northern General Hospital. The blood undergoes strict screening for disease and contamination prior to use. The samples are from a wide range of ethnic backgrounds and are from both male and female sources.

Keela's training and licensing is based around the level of 1 positive screening sample introduced into 200 control articles or 1 positive sample introduced during 6 hours searching in relation to crime scenes or vehicles.


Last edited by Ines on Tue Nov 22, 2011 11:33 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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PostPosted: Fri Aug 21, 2009 4:01 pm 
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Processos Vol VIII

Page 2189

7th August 2007. 18.30 PM


Sniffer Dog Report


Location: Areas surrounding Rua da Figueira and Rua Rosmaninho (area close to apartment 5 A in the Ocean Club) Praia da Luz, Lagos

Participants:
1. PJ – Ricardo Paiva
2. UK Mark Harrison
3. UK Martin Grime, UK Forensic Canine P SM Expert
4. Eddy – English Springer

The entire activity was filmed.

On this date at 18.30 sniffer dog inspections were carried out in the areas mentioned above, using the sniffer dog Eddy, who detects cadaver odour and it was observed that in these areas, the dog did not signal anything.


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PostPosted: Fri Aug 21, 2009 4:02 pm 
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Processos Vol VIII

Page 2190

3rd August 2007. 17.17 PM

Inspection by Sniffer Dog

Location: Apartment 5 A in the Ocean Club) Praia da Luz, Lagos

Participants:
1. PJ – Ricardo Paiva
2. UK Mark Harrison
3. UK Martin Grime, UK Forensic Canine P SM Expert
4. Keela – English Springer

The entire activity was filmed and recorded (sound).

On this date a new sniffer dog inspection was carried out in the apartment mentioned above, with the help of the dog Keela who detects human blood remains. The activity produced the following results:

19.19 The dog “marked” an area of tiles in the living room, next to the window and behind the sofa.

19.20 The dog “marked” the lower part of the left white coloured curtain of the window behind the sofa.

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PostPosted: Fri Aug 21, 2009 4:02 pm 
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Translation
CARTAS ROGATORIAS UK (FILE 3) p. 21 - 25
Martin Grime

Dated May 14 2008

I am a retired police offer, previously at the service of the South Yorkshire police. Between August 1-8, 2007, and while working for the South Yorkshire police, I collaborated with the Judicial Police, Portugal, as regards their Operations Task Force.
On the 17th of August 2007, I completed a report for the Head of Investigations of the Judicial Police, which was submitted by the Leicestershire Police. This report is exhibited as MG/1 and identified by the label bearing my signature. The Judicial Police is in possession of the originals of the search reports and the videos showing all searches performed and the reaction of the dogs. In addition to the report, Sam Harkeness of the Progresso Nacional Police Agency sent me by email several written questions sent by the Judicial Police together with a request for a written deposition. This deposition was submitted without me having seen or having knowledge of the final report from the forensic agency responsible for analyzing the evidence submitted in this case.

Questions and Answers:

“Could you explain the methodology regarding the performance of the dogs bearing in mind the searches that were performed?”
Please refer to my original report included in the summary (MG/1).

“Could you provide a detailed summary of the orientation capacity of the dogs, as well as an interpretation of the indications provided by them in the specific cases?”
Please refer to my original report included in the summary (MG/1).
The interpretation of any alert is given when the dogs recognize a specific odour as a result of a response to the behaviour for which they were trained. This response must then be submitted to a forensic examination in order to draw conclusions.

“In order to establish the accuracy of the dogs’ performance with respect to the alerts given when recognizing blood and a body, to what extent are these indications viable in this particular case?”
The dogs’ alerts are to be considered as an area of interest or possible testing. When specific and reliable this can only be measured for confirmation. In this case in particular, where the dogs alerted there was confirmation by positive results from the forensic examinations. It is the investigators’ responsibility to apply the results of the forensic analysis to the suspects, witnesses and crime scenes.

“Based upon the dogs’ behaviour, is it possible to distinguish between a strong signal and a weak signal”.
The dogs’ passive CSI alert provides an indication as per their training and does not vary. They only give an alert when they are “positive” that the target of the odour is present and immediately accessible. If they had any doubts they would not give an alert. EVRD gives an alert by means of a vocal bark. The variations in the vocal alert can be explained by many reasons such as “thirst” or “lack of air due to effort”. Every alert can be subject to interpretation, it has to be confirmed. The signals of an alert are only just that. Once the alert has been given by the dog, it is up to the investigator/forensic scientist to locate, identify and scientifically provide the evidence of DNA, etc.

“Can you confirm if the signal given regarding the stuffed toy corresponds to a concrete alert of detection of a cadaver, or a mere trick played by the dog?”
The dogs were not taught any “tricks”. EVRD “signalled” the toy, which at my request was retained by the Judicial Police for future forensic analysis. I have no knowledge of the results of any forensic analysis on the toy.

“With respect to the cadaver odour on Kate’s clothes, could it be undoubtedly affirmed that those clothes had been in contact with a cadaver?
OR
Could the alert have been given because the clothes had been in contact with other items of clothing, surfaces or objects that could previously have touched a cadaver, thereby allowing the odour to be transferred?”
There is always a possibility of contamination of odours by transferral. EVRD does not make a distinction; he responds with a certain behaviour for which he was trained when he recognizes an odour. He does not identify the reasons for the presence of the odour nor does he identify suspects. Forensic confirmation and specialized investigation methods will determine the reasons and the suspicions. In order to undoubtedly affirm there must be a confirmation of the alert signals made by the dog.

“The dog EVRD also alerts to blood from a live human being or only from a cadaver?
The dog EVRD is trained using whole and disintegrated material, blood, bone tissue, teeth, etc. and decomposed cross-contaminants. The dog will recognize all or parts of a human cadaver. He is not trained for “live” human odours; no trained dog will recognize the smell of “fresh blood”. They find, however, and give the alert for dried blood from a live human being.

“Taking into account the signals of CSI, could the dog alert to other biological fluids?”
The dog that alerts to human blood is trained exclusively for this purpose, and includes its components, plasma, red cells, white cells and platelets. Given the nature of the training, the dog will not alert to urine, saliva, semen sweat, nasal secretion, girl thingyl secretion or human skin unless these are mixed with blood. The components of blood are approximately:
Red cells 40-50%
Plasma 55% (of which 95% is water)
White cells
Platelets
DNA can only be removed from white cells.
This would suggest that, of the samples signalled by the dog looking for human blood, approximately 5% are available for DNA tests.

“Is there any chance, however remote, of any confusion”
The dogs do not get confused. They transmit a behavioural response inspired by the recognition of the odour for which they were trained.

“How long does a cadaver have to be in contact with a surface or an object for the odour to be detected?”
Cross-contamination is immediate.

“How long can a trace of blood remain at a scene and be detected by the CSI dog”?
During both training and operations, the CSI dog correctly located and signalled the presence of blood from 1960. This is not at all surprising. If enough blood is present so that the dog can recognize its odor, he will locate it and alert to its presence. There is no time restriction as regards the recognition of the odour by the dog. Blood, however, is subject to deterioration such as time and other natural processes such as dilution due to rain and other reactive chemical agents.

“Can the dog mix up traces of human odours with others that are non-human?”
I cannot comment on what the dogs think. However, from a forensic point of view and from confirmations of scientific testimonies, the dogs appear to be extremely exact. But, forensic confirmation is required in all cases so as to be included as proof. The CSI dog is trained using only human blood. And using a wide spectrum of donors to ensure that the dog does not individualize them.
EVRD used to be trained using swine (pigs) as their odour is the closest to that of humans. But most of the time, however, the dog was trained using the odour of a human cadaver. Operationally, the dog has ignored large amounts of animal remains/bones when locating human decomposition.

“Based upon your experience with the dogs, can you specify whether the positive signals given by them have always matched the scientific results?”
I cannot. In this case, for example, not all the alert signals have been investigated by the appropriate agencies in order to provide forensic comparations, in spite of indications to the contrary. It also should be taken into account that the procedures for forensic testing are still less discriminating than the system of dogs’ smell.
During training, the dogs are barely rewarded for positive alert signals regarding targets of known substances.

“At any time, did Gerald McCann address, either in Portugal or the United Kingdom, the performance of the dogs in this case?”
I never met nor spoken to Gerald McCann. However I do know that he addressed my head supervisor at the time, the South Yorkshire Head of Police, or Mr. Meredith Hughes.

This deposition was made by me and is true according to my understanding.


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PostPosted: Tue Sep 22, 2009 8:55 pm 
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With thanks to Albym.


Processos Vol VIII
Pages 2054-2055


These two pages are an official document for the case file regarding the search dog examination of apartments in the Ocean Club, Praia da Luz, Lagos on 31 July 2007.

The seven participants are indicated as being two members of the Policia Judiciaria (PJ); UK NPIA specialist, Mark Harrison, and the UK dog handler, Martin Grime; the two English Springer spaniels - Eddie and Keela; and Mrs Sylvia Batista, a manager of the Ocean club who is noted as the holder of the keys to the apartment and who was present solely to open doors.

All the work performed was recorded on video in image and sound.

The apartments searched were those previously occupied by the McCanns and members of the holiday group. Only apartment 5A was unoccupied at the time of the search. Holidaymaker occupants of the other apartments gave permission for the search to be conducted in their respective apartments.

In apartment 5A:
* between 20h16 (typing error in the report shows 21h16) and 20h30 the "cadaver" dog alerted:
- at 20h20 in the area of the wardrobe of the main bedroom
- at 20h22 in the lounge, specifically behind the sofa next to the window that overlooks the street.

* between 20h47 and 21.20 the "blood" dog alerted:
- at 21h10 in the lounge, specifically on the floor behind the sofa next to the wondow that overlooks the street.

In apartments 5B between 21h24 and 21h27; 5D between 21h29 and 21h34; 5H between 21h35 and 21h38; 4G between 21h42 and 21h45; the "cadaver" dog made no alerts.

Between 21h49 and 22h00, in the garden adjacent to apartment 5A, accessible from by way of the veranada and steps, the cadaver dog alerted in a garden-bed directly below the veranda.

Processo pages 2056 and 2057

These two pages are an official document for the case file regarding the search dog examination of areas around the Ocean Club, Praia da Luz, Lagos on 1 August 2007.

The thirteen participants are indicated as being four members of the Policia Judiciaria (PJ); UK NPIA specialist, Mark Harrison; the UK dog handler Martin Grime, and another English police officer, Jose Freitas [known to be a Portuguese-speaking officer with Scotland Yard]; the English Springer spaniel - Eddy; and five officers from the GNR (national police force).

The area surrounding the Ocean Club having been previously assessed with respect to place-names, soil characteristics and proximity to apartment 5A [refer Mark Harrison's report for details], the following areas were selected for search by the "cadaver" dog, all without results:

1 - Between 06h40 and 07h15 the area between Rua da Piteira and Rua da Oliveira;
2 - Between 07h25 and 07h45 the area immediately adjacent to the property known as "Beijaflor" in Rua da Figueira, which area was accessed through the electricity sub-station on Rua do Ramalhete;
3 - Between 07h55 and 08h05 the dirt road and area immediately adjacent to the residence known as "Casa Azul", in front of the residence known as "Casa Pandora", on Rua da Figueira;
4 - Between 08h20 and 08h40 the area between the residences known as "Casa Pandora" and "Quinta Mimosa", in front of the residence known as "Casa Ladeira".

Photographs and a map showing the areas is included in the report. The work stopped at 09h00.

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